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蔬菜農藥殘留檢測
豌豆莢、甜豆莢合格比率低

根據消基會在2019年進行豆菜農藥檢測的結果,顯示豆菜類農藥殘留不符合規定的比例較高,農藥的過量使用或濫用,除了影響消費者健康,更會給環境和生態帶來嚴重的汙染與危害。

 台灣蔬果種類繁多,隨著季節變換,有各式當季的蔬果可供選擇,在秋季進入冬季的時期,即進入高麗菜、豌豆莢與甜豆莢盛產的時節。

    高麗菜又稱甘藍,也叫捲心菜、包心菜,屬於十字花科的溫帶植物,台灣的主要產地為中部的高海拔地區和嘉南平原等,每年秋季、冬季與春季為主要產季。高麗菜含有豐富的纖維質、維生素及礦物質,適合熱炒、煮火鍋等各式烹調方法,醃製成泡菜亦爽口美味,是消費者經常食用的蔬菜之一。

    豌豆與甜豆性喜冷涼乾燥之氣候,台灣地區多於秋冬季節播種栽培,彰化、雲林等中部地區為主要產地,每年秋季、冬季與春季為主要產季。豌豆莢與甜豆莢適合熱炒食用,爽脆的口感深受許多消費者的喜愛。

    根據消基會在2019年進行豆菜農藥檢測的結果,顯示豆菜類農藥殘留不符合規定的比例較高,農藥的過量使用或濫用,除了影響消費者健康,更會給環境和生態帶來嚴重的汙染與危害。

    為了解市售蔬菜農藥殘留的情形,本次檢測選定高麗菜、豌豆莢與甜豆莢等秋冬盛產的蔬菜,以及四季皆常見的玉米進行380項農藥與二硫代胺基甲酸鹽農藥檢測,以此提醒農政單位重視農藥濫用的問題,檢測結果可提供給消費者作為選購時的參考。

採樣

    於2020年10月間,至台北市、新北市、桃園市、台中市、台南市、高雄市等六都的傳統早市、黃昏市場、量販店與超市等販售通路,購買18件玉米、18件高麗菜、18件豌豆莢與18件甜豆莢等蔬菜,共計72件樣品。(調查項目與測試方法請見表1)

調查與檢測結果(請見表2)

一、價格調查

   本次購買18件玉米換算每台斤價格介於23~70元;18件高麗菜換算每台斤價格介於25~90元;18件豌豆莢換算每台斤價格介於75~207元;18件甜豆莢換算每台斤價格介於75~207元。

二、殘留農藥檢驗

   農政單位表示,芬克座和達克利農藥在台灣現已無生產且無有效許可證,其來源有待釐清。豌豆莢一般播種期為9月下旬至11月中旬,盛產期為12月至3月,其來源有待溯源到生產者或進口商,值得農政、衛生單位持續追蹤,保障消費者食安與健康。

本次18件玉米中有15件未檢出農藥殘留,3件檢出,其中2件不符合規定,合格比例為88.9%。18件高麗菜有8件未檢出農藥殘留,10件檢出,其中1件不符合規定,合格比例為94.4%。18件豌豆莢皆檢出農藥殘留,殘留種類為3~23種,其中僅1件符合限量規定,17件不符合規定,合格比例為5.6%;扣除檢出芬克座的2件樣品,合格比例提高為6.25%;扣除檢出達克利的6件樣品,合格比例提高為8.33%。

18件甜豆莢皆檢出農藥殘留,殘留種類為4~20種,全數不符合限量規定,合格比例為0%;扣除檢出芬克座(9件)或達克利(6件)的樣品,合格比例仍為0%(請見表3)。本次18件豌豆莢與18件甜豆莢,僅有於台中市大潤發(忠明店)購買的1件豌豆莢與1件甜豆莢標示產地為越南,但這2件樣品並無檢出芬克座或達克利。除了這2件樣品,其餘豌豆莢與甜豆莢皆無產地標示。

    本次農藥檢測不合格的樣品,違反《食品安全衛生管理法》第15條第1項第5款規定,依同法第44條第1項第2款應處新台幣6萬元以上2億元以下罰鍰,情節重大者,並得命其歇業、停業一定期間、廢止其公司、商業、工廠之全部或部分登記事項,或食品業者之登錄;經廢止登錄者,1年內不得再申請重新登錄。

結論

對業者之呼籲

    本次檢測結果顯示,豌豆莢與甜豆莢殘留農藥的情形非常嚴重,可能是農友們未達安全採收期就提早採收,造成農藥殘留情形,此外,本次亦檢出多種不得使用於玉米、豌豆與甜豆的農藥(請見表4),推測原因可能是農民混用農藥,或是與其他農作物種植距離過近,使農藥交互汙染,造成多種農藥殘留。

    豆菜類為連續性採收的農作物,歷年來皆為農藥殘留檢測不合格率較高的品項,農友們應重視安全採收期,讓農藥能有足夠的時間消退,以降低農藥殘留的風險。此外,也應遵守「農藥殘留容許量標準」中對各農作物的農藥種類限制與限量規定,生產安全的蔬果,讓消費者能安心選購。

    建議中下游銷售端的業者,應要求賣方提供完整產品交易憑證,並將外箱標示的廠商名稱等資訊拍照存證,以利後續追查不合格產品來源,達到源頭管理的目的。

對消費者之呼籲

    本次檢驗結果顯示,玉米與高麗菜為農藥殘留風險較低的蔬菜,豌豆莢與甜豆莢為風險較高的蔬菜,建議消費者可選購當季盛產且非連續採收型態的蔬果,並於烹煮前,先以流動的清水沖洗根部或果蒂處後,以水浸泡10~20分鐘,再用流動的水沖洗2~3遍,並在烹煮時,將鍋蓋打開讓農藥揮發,以降低殘留農藥風險。

對政府之呼籲

    依農糧署公布的「田間及集貨場蔬果農藥殘留檢驗結果月報表」統計2018年1月~2020年10月玉米、高麗菜、豌豆與甜豆不合格件數(請見表5),2018年檢出農藥殘留不合格的玉米有1件,高麗菜有4件,豌豆有10件,甜豆有2件;2019年檢出農藥殘留不合格的豌豆有6件,甜豆有4件;2020年檢出農藥殘留不合格的高麗菜有2件,豌豆有6件,甜豆有3件,由於月報中沒有各品項的抽驗數量,因此僅能統計不合格的件數,無法統計合格率。

    依食藥署公布的「市售農產品農藥殘留監測結果」,統計2019年9月~2020年8月玉米、高麗菜、豌豆與甜豆的農藥殘留檢測結果(請見表6),玉米與高麗菜的合格率為100%,豌豆為75.5%,甜豆為79.1%,其中2019年9~12月合格率較低。

    依農糧署公布的「學校午餐生鮮蔬果食材農藥殘留抽驗資料」,統計2019年1月~2020年9月玉米、高麗菜、豌豆與甜豆的農藥殘留檢測結果(請見表7),玉米的合格率為100%,高麗菜為99.7%,豌豆的合格率為100%,甜豆的合格率為0%,但豌豆與甜豆的檢測樣品數僅3件與1件,因此較不具代表性。

    本會在2019年9~10月曾進行醜豆、豇豆、敏豆、豌豆及甜豆等豆菜類農藥殘留檢測,當時8件豌豆均檢出2〜13種農藥殘留,其中有7件不符合規定,合格率為12.5%;7件甜豆均檢出7〜14種農藥殘留,且7件皆不符合規定,合格率為0%(請見表3)。

農委會農業藥物毒物試驗所研發農藥殘留質譜快檢技術,10分鐘可檢測台灣過去3年曾監測到的198種農藥殘留。檢驗費用親民,由原先4,000~6,000元降至800~1,200元。經衛福部食藥署公告為建議方法後,現已有臺北、新北市、台中果菜運銷股份有限公司等建立質譜快檢實驗室,搭配實名制,在每日拍賣前完成抽檢,不合格農產品當場銷毀並追溯源頭停止供貨,為食安把關。

本會透過上網搜尋和電話聯絡得到2020年10月六都農產運銷公司蔬果農藥殘留抽驗結果(請見表8),皆無豌豆與甜豆樣品。以快速公開詳盡的質譜快檢檢驗結果的臺北果菜運銷股份有限公司10月檢驗結果,包括:(1)1件甘藍不合格(編號83號),其餘本次檢驗相同的品項未有不合格者;(2)8件豆菜不合格:26號菜豆、28號菜豆、31號敏豆、37號菜豆、47號敏豆、49號醜豆、53號菜豆、82號菜豆。仍以豆類居多,但未有豌豆。

    比較近年來政府單位與消基會進行豌豆與甜豆的農藥殘留檢測結果,本會抽驗的不合格比例與不合格件數都較政府單位所公布的數據高出不少,食品安全首重源頭管理,農政單位需再加強落實源頭的田間監測,並加強輔導農民於栽種時正確施用農藥,定期對於市售農藥殘留高風險的蔬果進行專案檢測;果菜運銷股份有限公司再加強對高風險豆類的農藥殘留檢測,多管齊下,才能有效減少蔬果殘留農藥的問題。

     本次調查顯示對於消費者關心的食安資料,迄今尚未能由食品雲入口端取得,無介接到相關法規管理及廠商資訊,不能及時查詢透明資訊,更遑論進行大數據分析,民間團體無從發揮監督食品安全的功能。基此,消基會樂見政府持續提升和擴充食品雲功能的努力,建議納入消費者主權,提供食品安全透明資訊,導入風險監測,進化到食品雲2.0版,確保食品供應鏈的每一環節都符合消費者的衛生、安全、品質、永續要求,同心合力建構信任食安的消費環境。食品雲2.0 = 消費者主權 + 資訊透明 + 風險監測

財團法人中華民國消費者文教基金會

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